All the documents used in this work are taken from the first twelve volumes of the ‘Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute’, issued annually, and beginning with Vol. 1., May, 1869.
The preface to the first issue notes that ‘Many of the papers here published are of a most important character, and all are valuable contributions to scientific literature.’ It was a necessary publication, and chronicled the colony’s discovery of itself.
I was initially led to the ‘Transactions’ by scientific purposes, but became attracted to the beauty of its contents. This was sometimes quite obvious — for example, in the shape of a document, its tables, graphs, or serried paragraphs. Or it might lie in the scientific rhetoric, the writing style, the subject, the punctuation and typography, or irony created by the passage of time, and the startling language.
Sometimes this beauty is so hidden it must be revealed. In the attempt to do this nothing used has been left entirely as it was at its source. With some of the texts only a little shaping was necessary. With most, however, I have rebuilt after destruction, to release an admirable form. There does appear, at appointed intervals, a poem that is entirely of my own composition, but I have only permitted myself this liberty for the purpose of necessary comment.
Here and there, in restructuring a document, I have inserted my own words. There is no absolute in my attitude on this matter.
It could well be objected that some of the texts in this work can hardly be described as ‘poetry’. However, I do include them and present them as such. From any discussion on this subject good might come. The book is indexed as a volume of the Transactions, and as to the title — I leave that to the reader to decipher.
4.Preface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *
6.The President Delivered the Following Address - - - - - - - - - x
7.The Otago Institute - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
9.On The Building Materials of Otago - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ix
10.Experiments With Prepared Fibre - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi
11.Proximate Principles Of The Leaf - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi
12.The Dunedin Fish Supply - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
14.Papers And Verbal Descriptions
15.On New Zealand Coffee - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ix
16.On the Root Stock of Marattia fraxinea - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ix
17.On a Better Knowledge of the Maori Race - - - - - - - - - - - - - xii
18.Whence of the Word - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iv
19.Some New Slugs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xi
20.May 7th. of this Year - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
21.Notes on the Microscopic Structure of Certain Rocks - - - - vii
22.Some Coccidae in New Zealand - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xi
23.Fertilization Among the Orchids - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xi
24.Fertilization of Pterostylis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - v
25.On the Fertilisation of Cyrtostylis oblonga - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
26.On the Nesting Habits of the Huia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - viii
27.Some Birds Found - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xi
28.Some Moa Remains - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
29.The Sphenodon - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
30.Taniwhasaurus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi
31.Taniwhasaurus oweni - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi
32.Dinornis elephantopus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i
33.A Raptorial Bird of Enormous Dimensions - - - - - - - - - - - - iv
34.Harpagornis moorei - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iv plate xi
35.On Measurement Made - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i
36.From a Catalogue of Naturalized Plants - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
37.On A Rock Shelter Near the Opihi Gorge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
38.Notice of the Existence of a Large Bat in N. Z.- - - - - - - - - - viii
39.Notes on the Properties of Certain Native Grasses - - - - - - - ix
42.The Genius of the Phenomenon - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *
43.The Comparative Atmospheric Pressure of N.Z.& Gt.Britain - ix
46.Notes on Some Habits of the Frost Fish - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - viii
47.Forest Culture in the Austral Colonies - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
48.Some Observations on Native Forest Land - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
49.The People - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I
52.Pages of Tables and Graphs
53.On the Principle of N.Z. Weather Forecast - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xii
59.On the Ancient Dog of the New Zealanders - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
60.The Economy of the Naultinus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xii
61.Naultinus pulcherrimus and Catocala traversii - - - - - - - - - - ix
62.The Herpetologist Loses his Pets
63.On the Hot Winds of Canterbury - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
64.On the Disappearance of the Larger Lizard from Nth. Cant. - vii
65.On the Phyllocladus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
66.On the Breeding Habits of the Katipo - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xi
69.Explanation of Plate xxviii - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
70.Description of Plate - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xii
71.On Forest Culture - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
72.Mr. Buller to the Rev. Mr. Taylor, Sir - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iii
73.Errata - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - viii
* Source uncertain, reference lost.
The only concrete science is Psychology,
The only ‘things-in-themselves’ are feelings.
Those that are vivid are sensations and emotions,
Those called ideas are but shadowy similitudes.
All existence is a mental state,
One’s own, and another’s.*
Between one’s own and another’s feelings
There are relations of sequence and synchronism.
This is endorsed every hour a thousand times
By the common sense of a social mankind.
An object is an abstraction, the reference of which
Is to a concretion inside the consciousness.
Outside the consciousness of the intelligent being
Can there be any real existences?
(There does exist such a world of realities,
But its nature must be forever hidden from us.)
We know that ‘things-as-they-are-in-themselves’
are inaccessible to human research.
I do not know whether my neighbour’s green
Is quite the same as that which I call green.
There is only one Existence — the ‘Substance of Mind’,
The supposed dualism of matter and spirit is illusion.
‘An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy.’
The President Delivered The Following Address
Tirade!Mere satisfaction in system’s sake
artistic effect and the like
for breadth of nature
in the study of life
deliberation and the like
and care, with only thus.
In pursuit of herself!hand in,
thus are all related to each other.
My burthen is care,
From ev’ry quarter and not for us alonelarge-heartedness
herself is truth with faithfulness.
Men have minds.
Unite our light with spirits for
the mysteries.Small circle.
There are wider circles
not extinguished by small circle which will live still.
Humble, I say,
In patience possess ye
in proper sphere
The Otago Institute
First Meeting. 5th. June, 1877.
the Rt. Rev. Bishop Neville, President, in the chair.
New members. - A. H. Jack, Rev. C. S. Ross, G. S. Duncan.
1.“On the N.Z. Myriopoda in the Otago Museum”, by Prof. F. W. Hutton.
2. “Notes on the Habits of the N.Z. Grayling (Proto—
toctes oxyrhynchus),” by J. Rutland.
Second Meeting. 19th. June, 1877.
The Rt. Rev. Bishop Neville, President, in the chair.
New members. - R. Paulin, G. E. Eliott, A. Montgomery.
Professor Black gave a lecture on: The Earth a Cinder.
Third Meeting. 3rd. July, 1877.
R. Gillies, Vice-President, in the chair.
1. Professor Hutton explained Schivender’s theory of
the Nature of Lichens.
2. Professor Hutton read a note on a Fungus-penetra-
Fourth Meeting. 17th. July, 1877.
W. N. Blair, Vice-President, in the chair.
Professor Macgregor gave a lecture on Mental Physics.
On The Building Materials of Otago
NameNameper cubic foot dryticityness
- Black MapauPittosporum tenuifolium60.14243215.2114.08
- Red MapauMyrsine urvillei61.84192.4169.8892.94
- White MapauCarpodetus serratus51.24177.6166.8654.64
- ManukaLeptospermum ericoides59.00239239.5116.58
- RataMetrosideros lucida65.13196244.294.23
- KowhaiSophora tetraptera55.11207.5198.0579.19
- PokakaEleocarpus dentatus35.03125200.797.65
- CedarLibocedrus bidwillii39.69120137.632.43one experi-
- MiroPodocarpus ferruginea49.07197.2230.24128.05ment
- TotaraPodocarpus totara35.17133.6124.658.85only
- Black PinePodocarpus spicata40.74190156.2290.86
- White PinePodocarpus dacrydioides30.43106127.149.07
- Red PineDacrydium cupressinum39.25140.2143.2879.66
- Silver BirchFagus menziesii38.99158.211662.04
- Red BirchFagus fusca48.62202.5219.587.28
- Australian Iron Bark70.92282.7297192.31
- Australian Blue Gum60.66214.8259.6191.78
- English Oak55.96128.5127105.36Acc. to Barlow
- ditto51.72176.4257.3150.79Acc. to Laslett
- English Ash46.19169.2180115.96Acc. to Barlow
- ditto46.00188.5331.6133.90Acc. to Laslett
- Memel Deal36.77144.25116- - - - -Acc. to Barlow
- English Beech43.77129.66195.8134.58Acc. to Barlow
- Riga Fir46.4689.9167.779.95Acc. to Barlow
- ditto33.81131.2435.4221.76Acc. to Laslett
- English Elm34.2187.982.274.63Acc. to Barlow
- ditto34.8786145.1599.51Acc. to Laslett
- Kauri34.31157.42417.46338.86Acc. to Laslett
- ditto38.96165.5181.2792.98Acc. to Balfour
English & Exotic Examples
4. EXPERIMENTS WITH PREPARED FIBRE.
Most of the experiments now to be detailed are connected with the oiling. The samples used were submitted to certain tests, with the following results: -
Descript. Of Fibre.MoistureAshOilFix.OilTot.Oil
A. Native … …22.214.171.124.20.49
B. Machine Dressed126.96.36.199.29.43
C. Machine Dressed188.8.131.52.26.64
D. Nichol’s Process184.108.40.206.36.92
Oiling Experiments, Series I. Show that the fine native dressed fibre retains the least.
Oiling Experiments, Series II. We learn that dry fibres absorb less than those which are moist.
Oiling Experiments, Series III. The inferiority of a vegetable oil for such purposes was shown.
Oiling Experiments, Series IV. Sperm oil was used for these experiments, on exposure to the air.
Proximate Principles Of The Leaf
Moisture --------- 71.6
Organic Matter - 26.8
Mineral Matter --- 1.6
Cold water extracts from the leaf a deal of sugar,
with traces of albuminoid matter & saline substance.
Hot water removes much bitter principle, and gum.
Ether removes oil and fat,
and so with other solvents.
A. The Gum: when partially dried it swells in cold
and dissolves in hot,
when burnt it leaves,
it is distinct from starch,
it is turned by boiling.
I can suggest no purpose for it.
B. Wax:Rather less than 1%
It is on the surface
It repels water.
It may be removed
(by boiling alcohol).
C. Sugar:It yielded much sugar.
This sugar is fructose.
It exists in fresh leaves depending.
The Dunedin Fish Supply
Excepting during late winter months
This excellent fish has been always in.
A few very large were brought to town,
But from 20-30 pounds is the av. size.
Was in the market for 159 days.
This is abundant in the Otago Harbour
And furnishes anglers with good sport.
It varies from six to fourteen inches,
And is one of the best of our sea fishes.
Was in the market 233 days.
Red Cod. —
Perhaps the most plentiful of our fish,
It is caught inside and outside the Heads.
Both large and small are cured here by
Smoking and sold as Finnan Haddock.
They were in the market for 214 days.
Is a most regular visitor to our market,
And is brought here from the Bluff, from
Stewart Island fishermen, sent us by the
Southland steamers, if the weather allows.
This fish was in the market 136 days.
It is present more or less all the year,
Though generally scarce in the autumn.
It is among the best of our food fishes.
The young are most curiously spotted.
This fish was present 83 days.
In large though usually irregular supply.
This season began about October 17th.
Nearly a fortnight earlier than usual.
They were plentiful all along the coast.
Were in the market 123 days.
Seventy were caught about Purakanui
In fine clear weather and a young moon.
They were for a few days most plentiful,
And some of the shops had up to 20.
They were brought to market on 11 days.
It was kept in regular supply all this year.
The fishermen catch them undersized;
The dealers should refuse them so small.
The law must be asked by us to interfere.
The flounder was in the market 261 days.
Papers And Verbal Descriptions
On New Zealand Coffee.
It is extremely hardy.
It bears a great quantity of fruit.
It grows with rapidity to a moderate height.
It is easily grown.
The seeds are small compared with those of true coffee
but the trees bear much fruit
and appear to do so every year.
I have collected a quantity of the berries.
Slight bruising and washing will remove the outer pulp.
When roasted and ground the beans have a splendid aroma.
I send a sample of the grounds for the inspection of the meeting.
If members will apply their olfactory nerves to it
they will be satisfied that we have in the Taupata
a source of great wealth,
requiring but little capital to develop
and capable of almost unlimited expansion.
On the Root-Stock of Marattia
this form of root-stock may be named a
scaly sub-ariel rhizome, without inter-
Fig. 1 .
Fig. 2 .
Fig. 3 .
& 4 .
Fig. 5 .
flexible root process
Fig. 6 .
starch grains and scalariform bundles
On A Better Knowledge Of The Maori Race
Some Maori proverbs, etc.
He kakariki kai ata!
Like a green parrot which eats at dawn!
Na te waewae I kimi.
Sought for by looking.
Taringa muhu kai!
Ears alive for food!
He pai rangitahi!
One day beauty; short-lived pleasure.
He kaakaa waha nui!
A noisy-mouthed parrot!
Tiketike ao, papaku po!
Tall by day, small by night!
Kei kai te ketekete.
Lest there be nothing to eat but regrets.
Kei maaku toku.
Don’t complain of trifles.
Tineia te ahi! Auahi tahi!
Stop the fire! It’s only smoke!
He kai kora nui te riri!
War is a fire lit by a spark!
Tini whetu, e iti te pokaeo.
The stars are many, but a cloud hides them.
He o kaakaa!
Small food for a long trip!
Whence of the Word
Duo Do Dui Dua Rua
Lime Lima Rima
Solid on a hill one tree
Taru Kayu Kai
Firm from earth to stone
Putta Batu Kohatu
Of Ignis Aag Ahi
In shape a Fisc
Icthus Ikan Ika
For the Benua/Whenua
Aku Ic or me
And the Wahini/Wif
Some New Slugs
1. Mantle slightly shagreened, short and emarginate behind; pul
2. opening a little behind the centre. A depressed line runs from
3. opening forward over the back, and backwards again forward
4. a point on the left side opposite the pulmonary opening. Bac
5. sharply keeled up to the mantle; body smooth with depressed
6. radiating from the mantle. Colour dark grey or olive above;fo
7. and lower sides of the body yellowish-white. Length 1 inch. S
8.Dunedin; common in gardens etc.
1. Mantle rugose, short and rounded behind; pulmonary openin
2. front of the middle; back rounded not pointed posteriorly; co
3. dark lead-grey, a lateral stripe on the mantle, and a longitudin
4. band on each side, black; sometimes the whole upper part of
5. the body greyish-black; foot yellow. There is no prostate glan
6. and the retractor of the penis is attached to its anterior end. T
7. penis is long; the ovotestis is small. Length 1 inch; shell rudim
8.Dunedin; not uncommon in gardens etc.
1. Mantle short and flatly rounded behind, smooth and sub-conc
2. wrinkled when alive, but rugose and not wrinkled when in spir
3. Pulmonary opening in the posterior third of the mantle. Back r
4. indistinctly behind the mantle, pointed and keeled a-posteriorl
5. variable—greyish or reddish-brown, variously marbled with du
6. Bitenticulate. Foot yellowish-white. The radula has 33 rows of
7. rachis teeth. Length, about one and a half inches. Shell slightly
8.Dunedin; common in gardens etc.
May 7th. Of This Year
On the morning
of this day
the most beautiful fish in New Zealand
near the hotel
at New Brighton
in a splendid state of preservation
twelve and a half feet long
a crest of bright red spines
and a silver skin
It is frosted, iridescent
and new to science
Regalecus pacificus is its name
this beautiful fish in New Zealand
Notes on the Microscopic Structure of Certain
NO.207b.— (Selwyn River.) Altered dolerite. The constituents are plagioclase, augite, magnetite, and pseudomorphs after olivine. The large brown patches appear to be cavities filled with fine-grained basaltic portions of the rock.
NO.410.— (Haurata District.) Orthoclase and plagioclase are both present. The brown mineral is probably augite; the colours, however, are less brilliant than usual. The base contains an immense number of microlites.
NO.218.— (Flagstaff Hill Basin.) This specimen consists of a fine-grained matrix composed of small grains and crystals of augite, plagioclase, and magnetite, in which larger crystals are imbedded; this is probably olivine.
NO.398.— (Haurata District.) Contains the same minerals as No. 218, together with slender acicular crystals of apatite. The olivine has been much decomposed, and it is probably only hydrous ferric oxide that remains.
NO.204.— (Acheron Section.) A weathered specimen. The felspar is much altered; some appears to be orthoclase. There are many long prisms of apatite, and the small hexagonal crystals are the transverse sections of the prisms.
Some Coccidae in New Zealand
COCCIDAE. — Plate V11., figure 13. — LECANIDAE.
Fig. a, Ctenochiton perforatus; female, 2nd.
c,````antenna `` .
e,````test of adult.
COCCIDAE. — Plate V1., figure 10. — DIASPIDAE.
Fig. a, Diaspis gigas: - - - - - - female, dry.
b,````pellice of 2nd.
e Diaspis ------?:female: magn.
COCCIDAE. --- Plate V1., figure 11. --- LECANIDAE.
Fig. a, Rostrum and mentum of Lecanidae.
a, Abdominal cleft, anal ring of ditto.
c, Respiratory organ of Lecassium sp.?
d, Stigma, and stigmatic spines magn.
e, Foot and digitules of ditto magn.
COCCIDAE. --- Plate V111., figure 18. — COCCIDAE.
Fig. a, Acanthococcus multispinus: sac: magn.25.
b,````female x 40.
c````ditto + spine.
e,````antenna x 2
Fertilization Among The Orchids
are strikingin appearance
spider on aleaf sepal helmet shape
over the flowerinvolute
and expand downtip
a small slit is seen
into a circularapertureedge
at a sharp anglebends
at the bottom placed
exudesif a drop instant withdrawing
and brought away
cannot take placeby wayit
goes in either this or cross
a Culexto the front of the
the only insect capable
[Fertilization of Pterostylis]
On The Fertilisation Of Cyrtostylis oblonga.
- The great resemblance that this plant bears to Acianthus induced me to suppose that its fertilisation would be conducted on the same plan, and this appears to be the case.
We find in Cyrtostylis as in Acianthus the lip horizontally spread out secreting abundance of nectar;
The column arching over it the points of the rostellum hanging downwards with the pollinia firmly fastened to their upper margins;
So that an insect having once entered the flower can hardly avoid attaching itself to the pollen-masses and removing them on its departure.
- The lip is narrow and quite plain the secreting glands are at its base; the nectar slowly trickles down each side of the midrib.
The pollen masses are falcate in shape they are laterally much compressed and extremely friable.
- Notwithstanding the minuteness of the flowers they are frequently visited by insects chiefly minute species of Diptera.
The pollinia are not removed with the same regularity as in Acianthus nor are so many capsules produced.
On The Nesting Habits Of The Huia
It will be gratifying to lovers of natural history
to hear of the Huia
in the Orongorongo Ranges.
About the 20th. Of October last
Mikaera brought to Mr.Buchanan
an egg of this species
from a cavity
in a tree.
Observing the old birds
he had concluded there was a nest
and felt with his arm.
Finding it too deep
he cut a “supplejack”
and, bending this into a loop,
he thrust it down
and by this rude means
He at length succeeded in bringing up an egg,
although in a somewhat broken condition.
Both embryo and shell
are now in the collection of the colonial Museum.
[Some Birds Found]
Some Moa Remains
a. — Gastrocnemii:-
The conjoined tendon of G. internus and G. externus is well seen,
and its respective connections to the and exto-gastrocnemial
The inner insertion is neither so strong nor so extensive.
The ento-gastrocnemial insertion begins behind and below
The endo-metatarsal tuberosity by a rough patch which runs into
A strong ridge that ends on the posterior aspect of the inner
Tarso-metatarsus at a point about two inches above the Trachlea
The ecto-gastrocnemial insertion is in its upper part made out,
Owing to it’s being partly covered by a hardened inflexible skin.
It is attached to the outer border of Tarso-metatarsus,
And terminates in a distinct impression,
From which it is separated by a deep but smooth groove.
[This groove presents all the appearance of a vascular groove,
In which an artery and a vein have formerly lain.]
The outer insertion is separated from the bone at one point
To allow a tendon* to pass from the front leg to the back;
This point is at the junction of the upper third with the lower;
But above and below this point the outer is very firm and strong.
Between the two gastrocnemial surfaces a portion of the perios-
teum of bone is left,
And the periosteum receives many fibres from the gastrocnem-
ius at these surfaces.
* Can this tendon be that peculiar tendon of the Pectineus, Owen: (or Rectus anticus femoris of Cuvier), fig. 1, x.
Dr. Gray named it Hatteria punctata
Owen re-named it Rhynchocephalus
Myvert & Huxley went to Sphenodon
The Maoris called it Ruatara, Tuatara, Tuatete, or Kaweu.
Three species of Sphenodon
unlike in form and colour!
(1.) Sphenodon punctatum,with myriads of light spots.
(2.) Sphenodon, Buller, with much green and yellow.
(3.) Sphenodon guntheri.
The dark form is in the north, the lightest in
At just this time the position of ‘Sphenodon’ in the Sauropsida is not yet
quite certainly known:
Professor Seely writes of Lacertia, Rhynchocephalia, and Crocodilia.
Dr.Gunther proposes the following division:-
He divides the Squamata into:-
Ophidia, Lacertila, Rhynchocephalia
If external characteristics alone were considered, he says , it would mostly resemble Agamidae, of which genus Professor Peters thinks it an aberrant form.
Rolleston thinks it ‘a low lizard.’
A mass of vertebrae, a skull, and paddle bones.
(The dorsal vertebrae procoelian.)
The neural arches continuous,
The anterior being longer in each case.
[There is a rudimentary Zygosphene:
fragments of ribs are preserved:
the inferior two-thirds of the
circumference of the centra pre-
sents an even striated surface.
The centra are compressed lat-
erally, but not constricted.The
ribs are flattened and only slight-
ly expanded at their insertion.]
The paddle bones are remarkable.
The humerus has a flattened
and much-recurved anconal
processes. Length 6in.
Distal Width 6in.
Radius 4in. Length.
The carpals are thin and flattened,
Only a few fragments of phalange are preserved.
The head is in two parts:
the orbital width is about 7 inches
The total length about 24 inches
the length of the tooth series 14 in.
The form of the symphysial surface
uniting the two romi, and the
evident angle of divergence,
would make the gape 7inches.
The teeth are finely striated and
were set in the jaw with a
marked lateral divergence.
There is a pterygoid tooth.
A Raptorial Bird Of Enormous
(like the Roc)
The pits for the attachment of the ligaments in the
inter-codyloid fossa are strongly marked.
The femur is pneumatic.
The proximal orifice large.
The inter-muscular linear ridges are raised above
The epitrochanteric articular is prominent,
The same being the case with Circus.
The trochanter of both are more rounded.
A fragment of a right humerus with both apophyses
broken off and leaving parent trace.
The third rib on the right side,
The first after the pleurapophyses,
Articulates with the haemapophyses and with the
[The upper portion of the epipleural appendage is
The ungual phalanx of the hallus.
A second ungual phalanx.
The fragment of a right humerus a wing portion.
No man could have stood against it.
On Measurement Made
giganteus and robustus
about which I shall speak.
My conclusion will be
Length of Bone
Girth of Prox.
Girth of Shaft
Girth of Distal
In the Tibia,
the Tarsus metatarsus.
From A Catalogue Of Naturalized Plants
Observed in the Vicinity of Port Nicholson And Other Localities in the
Wellington Provincial District, 1877.
Ranunculus scleratus, L. An anonymous writer in the ‘Educational
Gazette’, vol.1.p.83, states that this species is found on
the Porirua road. I have not seen Wellington specimens.
acris, L. Kaiwarawara etc.
repens, L. Common in most places.
bulbosus, L. Kaiwarawara.
hirsutis, Curtis. Old Porirua rd.—‘Educational Gazette’, 1.
p. 83. Anonymous: R. bulbosus, L., is probably mis-
taken for this species, which I have not seen in the
parviflorus, L. The typical form is common about Welling
ton, Otaki, Hutt Valley, Wairarapa etc; it is easily disting
uished from R. australis, Br., by its comparatively robust
muricatus, L. Specimens supposed to have been collected
near Wellington are in the herbarium of the Colonial
philonotis, Retz. Evans Bay, Hutt Valley, Otaki.
On A Rock Shelter Near The Opihi Gorge
We were not taken to the best spot
But to a long rock shelter on the north bank.
The cave is about 200 yards long, 10ft. wide, 12ft. high.
The entire surface of the rock is covered with drawings,
Which are so defaced by modern scrawls
That it is impossible to distinguish their true forms.
Since the natives have lost their regard for these relics
The eeling parties that frequent the spot
Scratch rude drawings all over them.
The one good specimen I could find
Was near the eastern end of the cave
At a height of fourteen feet from the ground.
The black paint used by the artist
Has stood exposure so well
That the lines are now in relief.
The parallel lines are very like the patterns
On Maori baskets and the battens
Of ornamental roofs.
I saw everywhere these parallel lines and curves,
But nothing like the Waikari drawings
Which are outlines or coloured throughout.
The Rev.Koti Ratu, Hone Paratene, and other intelligent natives
Concur in the opinion that the drawing is a Tipua,
But I think it is meant to represent a seal.
Notice of the Existence of a Large Bat in New Zealand.
At Dr. Buller’s request
I send the following observations:
(time of year uncertain),
at half an hour after sunset,
and moon at full,
I saw, at Paikakariki, a large bat.
It flew across about twenty feet,
and was about that distance from me.
I saw it perfectly.
The body was far larger than that of a mouse,
And somewhat smaller than that of a rat.
The spread of the wings was not less than eighteen inches.
The late Rev. R. Taylor informed me
that he had seen a similarly-sized bat at Wanganui.
Mr. Kirk informs me that he has seen
Very large bats at the Clarence River.
My bat may have been an Australian bat,
Brought in some vessel,
As that, also, of the Rev. Mr. Taylor.
I should have thought so,
But for Mr. Kirk’s observation.”
Notes On The Economic Properties Of Certain Native
Microlaena avenaceaThis species produces a considerable quantity of rather coarse herbage, which is eaten by horses and cattle in the absence of better kinds. As it grows under the shade of trees, it is well adapted for sowing in woods to which cattle have access, but it is not suitable for mixed open pasturage.
Hierochloe redolensFurther observation of this grass has confirmed the opinions already expressed, that although eaten by horses and cattle it is not adapted for general cultivation. In the South Island it ascends to 3,500 feet, and then at those higher altitudes becomes in its habit a less coarse pasturage.
Zoysia pungensA creeping-rooted grass, which often forms a dense sward of short herbage, especially in moist places near the sea. The herbage is sweet and nutritious, and is of quick growth after cropping. Although greedily eaten by sheep, its dwarf habit unfortunately makes it ineligible for mixed pasturage.
Agrostis pilosaThis species is most abundant in the South Island, where it ascends from the sea level to 3,500 feet, and attains its greatest luxuriance in open spaces in forests. It is coarse in habit, and yields a large quantity of valuable herbage. It appears to be well adapted for mixed permanent pasturage.
Kaeleria cristataA slender grass of considerable value, although its yield is less than that of Meadow Fescue or Rye-Grass. Of similar habit and value to the Dog’s- Tooth Grass, Cynosurus cristatus. It is restricted to the South Island, and is cultivated in England. It is well adapted for mixed pasture.
It was an expansive age,
watery, with calcium in it,
se we made bones,
all-purpose and specific,
and for practice eggs with embryos.
It was not our thought that they should live;
they were too gross.
We had a template even then
for trial and refining skill.
We also made some bits of skin,
footprints and nests,
set food-chains, time-lines,
things like that,
and scattered skeletons aesthetically,
providing permanence for some
which were too good to lose.
Through all that age we looked ahead
to golden times with knowledge in them,
brains and feet and thumbs
yet to come,
confident our craft would be explored
dug up and understood,
exhibited in galleries and loved,
for art is eternal,
its beauties never die.
The Genius of the Phenomena
Whence the activity which pours forth
the boiling waters of Rotomahana
to run glistening down the terraces
of their constant formation?
Wherein the force that lights
the red fires which burn ever
in the crater of White Island?
What the power
that still draws up
a cone in Ngauruhoe?
The reply from the waters of Rotomahana,
from the fires of White Island,
from the cone of Tongariro,
is one word: “sulphur”
Conceive how these flame-begot forces,
confined and unable to escape,
have raised the land into mountain-masses;
have caused the crust of the earth
to subside into caverns.
Earthquakes but wait upon the fires below.
At boiling cauldron
or bursting crater
It is the genius of the phenomena.
The Comparative Atmospheric Pressure of New
Zealand and Great Britain (Considered In Reference to
Dr. Newman’s Theory of Physical Deterioration.)
- In a paper entitled
“Speculations on the Physiological Changes which obtain
in the English Race when Transplanted to New Zealand”
In an ingenious argument
Endeavoured to show
That in consequence of certain deficiencies in the
Climate of New Zealand
The English race located here
May be expected to deteriorate
Both physically and mentally
In future generations.
- The contention stated in syllogistic form is as follows: -
Major Premiss -- Children born in countries
where the atmospheric pressure
is less have a tendency to be
inferior to those born where the
atmospheric pressure is greater.
Minor Premiss -- In New Zealand the atmospher-
ic pressure is less than in Great
Conclusion -- Ergo — children born in New
Zealand should be inferior to
those born in England.
- Dr. Hahn of Vienna
In his essay on the Climate of New Zealand,
(Met. Report, N.Z., 1873, Hector, p.77)
“It is a well-known fact that air pressure
decreases very rapidly towards the Pole in the
Southern Hemisphere. We find this confirm-
ed in New Zealand where the medium press-
ure of air at the level of the sea, between 37d.
and 46d.S. latitude, decreases from 29.981
inches to 29.804 inches; whereas in the
Northern Hemisphere in these latitudes the
pressure of air remains between 30.009 in.
and 30.001 inches.”
- Authentic observations made
In both countries
And being made under known conditions
And with verified instruments
Are readily intercomparable.
Those taken in New Zealand,
Under the auspices of the Meteorological Department,
Comprise the barometric records of fourteen stations,
Distributed over the length and breadth of these Islands,
From Mongonui in the north (latit. 35.1)
To Southland in the south (latit. 46.17)
From Napier in the east (long.176.55)
To Hokitika in the west (long.170.59)
and extending over a ten year period
- To make a fair comparison between the two countries
I have selected the same number of stations
In England, Scotland, and Wales.
All these observations are for a period of ten years
And are taken at sea level.
GREAT BRITAINNEW ZEALAND
N. Lat.InchesS. Lat.Inches
Culloden57. 3029.765Dunedin45. 5229.873
Glasgow55. 5329.792Queenstown45. 229.987
York53. 5829.872C. Campbell41.5029.968
Mean ....... 29.848Mean ........ 29.918
N. Lat.InchesS. Lat.Inches
Culloden57. 3029.765Dunedin45. 5229.873
Glasgow55. 5329.792Queenstown45. 229.987
York53. 5829.872C. Campbell41.5029.968
Mean ....... 29.848Mean ........ 29.918
Hence it is plain that the mean atmospheric pressure of N.Z.,
Instead of being lower than that of Great Britain,
Is .07 inch higher,
And so disappears
The clever but illusive theory
Built upon the contrary assumption.
L.H. Kyle, 1876
Notes on Some Habits of the Frost Fish.
In his notes on the edible fishes
Attached to Captain Hutton’s
‘Catalogue of the Fishes of New Zealand’
And under the head of the Frost Fish
Or Hiku of the Maoris,
“Nothing is definitely known of the habits of this fish,
why it should be cast up on the land,
the probability being that
on the calm nights
when the sea is smooth
it pursues too close to the shore,
and is left by the long swell of the ebb tide.”
It is true that the Frost Fish usually comes on shore
During the moonlight nights of winter,
But it also lands in Clifford Bay in the day
With a southerly and smooth water.
I can state that the fish is not cast up by the sea,
But that it deliberately forces itself on shore,
Selecting a shallow sandy beach for that purpose.
On two occasions I stood between
A Frost Fish and the beach,
And turned him with a long stick
Head to sea,
But in a minute he turned again
Going up high and dry.
I gave up attempting to guide his decision,
and took him home for breakfast.
Forest Culture in the Austral
From remote ages
Forests have been destroyed
As if they were enemy.
It is one of the enigmas
Of human nature.
Many an ancient glory
Departed with its forests.
Denudation of timber
Produces barren soil,
Increases insect life,
Causes floods and
Degrades a nation.
In this province
A reckless destruction
Has taken place
And is still.
A tree will grow 300 years
To build a house
That will rot
A man will burn a forest
To light his pipe.
Some Observations On Native Forest Land
Forest in the hand of natives
should be bought,
And forest with young trees
should be closed,
and all precaution taken,
so that they may be kept
as use and ornament
for the centuries to come.
Native trees have not been much grown.
They may be raised
with shade and moisture,
and if the roots are fostered
the Kauri, Rimu, Maire,
Rata, Mangaio, Titoki,
Totara, Puriri, and
Pohutukawa will do well.
It must not be forgotten
that for timber purposes
most of our timber trees
require a century before
they become available.
Other than native trees
must be resorted to.
The Oak, Elm, Sycamore, Ash & Beech
may be grown south of Auckland;
on grassy plains and plateaux
deciduous trees will succeed,
and belts and plantations of coniferae,
and suitable species from
the great order of Eucalypti.
Many of these will do well on our clay soils.
1. Colour.6. Sensorial faculties.
2. Height: shape.7. Puberty: natural selection: number
3. Physiognomy: head.of children.
4. Hair.8. Malformations: albinos mental.
5. Constitution health: constitution: Teeth.9. Diseases: commoner accidents.
10. Ordinary habits: of men: of women.(4.) Body Piercing, etc.
11. Modes of obtaining subsistence -(5.) Marriage.
(1.) gardening(6.) Polygamy and Divorce.
(2.) farming(7.) Death: Mourning and Disposal
(3.) industry(8.) Memorial.
(4.) service.19. Distinctions of Rank.
12. Division of Labour(1.) Privilege.
13. Architecture: town planning.(2.) Deprivation.
14. Means of Conveyance.20. Property.
15. Manufactures--(1.) Private right.
(1.) Textiles.(I) Definite.
(2.) Implements of Agriculture and(11) Indefinite
of War: tools and vessels.(111) Inheritance
(3.) Means of Communication and(1V) Succession
Mechanical appliances.(V) Usufructuary.
16. Aesthetics: Musical Instruments and(V1) Peculiar: house, car.
Other Fine Arts.(2.) Common.
17. Commerce, etc.21. Treatment of Diseases:Chemical,surgery
18. Ordinary Events -palliative.
(1.) Birth, etc.22. Acquired habits.
(2.) Betrothal.23. Drinks.
(3.) “Naming”.24. Masticatories.
(4.) Festivals.25. Fondness for Children, and Pets.
(5.) Games and Diversions.26. Devices for Self-improvement.
Sprung from the elements
on the Isles;
Or by instalments freed
like flies from the mould
Or like Adam one,
then a partner made like he
Or by the fertilities of the soil,
oned this once
in a rain too light to hear
and almost too soft to feel,
a warm breath from an idle sun —
here’s another new world
we’re made in!
Pages of Tables and Graphs
On The Principle Of New Zealand Weather
On the First Day
the barometers were at 30.55
As we advance the Diagram to the right--------- >
After an interval of twelve hours
it has fallen nearly
at the Bluff
without any change in wind direction
though it will have grown stronger
By the Second Day -------->
we find pressure still diminishing
the barometer has fallen to
the wind is more to the west
but is a northerly gale
south of the contour30.30
On the Third Day -------------------------->
Moving the Diagram to the right ------------------>
Within the next twelve hours
the barometer at Bluff
goes down to 29.55
and rises to 29.64
the wind veering S. of W.
as pressure increases
a southerly gale is now blowing over the South Island
the barometer rises at Hokianga
at Wellington it falls
On the Fourth Day -------->
At Wellington the barometer falls to 29.88
and the wind is at the south
At Bluff the barometer has risen to 29.90
At Hokianga the barometer has risen a little
and the wind is now from the southward
and the low area is to the eastward
and the low area is to the eastward
On The Ancient Dog of the New Zealanders
It appears from the united testimony of the first visitors
to this country, that the New Zealand dog was much like
those of the other South Sea Isles:
That it was a domestic animal
small in size
with pointed nose
and little eyes.
That it was stupid and ugly
of various shades
black brown and parti-
with a short tail
and lank hair.
That it was sullen
with no scent
nor proper bark.
That its skin was used for clothing
its tail for ornament
its flesh for food.
That it was fed on fish and refuse offal.
The dog on which Captain Cook and his officers feasted
near the Traps off South Cape, on their first voyage, had
been bred on board.
The Economy Of The
During the winter
I looked at them
three or four times.
they were restless
with three little ones!
Two were spotted
two were green
as if in velvet.
I gave them a
glass dome with leafy
twigs and water,
Bits of meat
of bread of
roots and caterpillars.
At length I
put some living flies
into their crystal palace.
At length I
caught some tiny flies
for their young.
But the lizards
had no teeth
and were weak.
Though they grew
in length they grew
more frail and died.
[Naultinus pulcherrimus and Catocala traversii]
The Herpetologist Loses His Pets
It is in appointed nature
that the cat should loosen a lid,
and it is in the nature of Heteropholis
that it should escape
to wherever nature calls it,
into thin flat darkness;
So now they lie
under the hearth-rug,
in the sugar-bin,
and in the book-case
where fate has reserved space
between the 2-vol. Navarre edition of Rabelais
and Goethe’s Italian Journey,
Where they lodge their green-and-silver bodies
in the spines, or where
one volume leans upon another,
living off lice,
And though they would much rather
bask on twigs and live under rocks,
they are confident of peace
in such an exotic locale;
It is interesting,
and they are grateful they can still live
where they are being studied,
among books which are full of the life of things,
On the Hot Winds of Canterbury
I was surprised to find in Ch.Ch.
A strong N.W. gale come on to blow,
Which continued for some days,
And seemed to possess a large share
Of the disagreeable characteristics
Of the sirocco of Malta and Southern Europe,
Or the desert winds of Australia,
Whilst the sky presented the same hard features.
The nor-wester blows for days and nights
Withering the vegetation, crisping the leaves,
And depressing the energies of animals and human beings.
Then torrents of rain are being discharged
Upon the mountains and forests of Westland,
And in the region of Mt. Cook thunder prevails.
On The Disappearance of the Larger Kind
Of Lizard From North Canterbury.
The following is a summary of the statements made by
Te Aika, Te Uki, Iwikau, & Te ata o Tu:-
Unu ngarara or ngarara burrows
Were plentiful in the manuka
On the north side of the Waimakariri
Westwards to the ranges.
The ngarara was darker than the ruatara,
From two to three feet in length,
And ten to twenty inches in girth.
From neck to tail was a serrated crest.
A ngarara was kept a pet at Kaiapoi.
It was fed on small birds and cooked fern.
It was gentle and liked being stroked,
And could indicate that it was hungry.
The mouth was full of teeth;
Some at the front grew large.
These were three or four inches long,
And were prized as mat pins.
A smaller kind lived in streams.
Cats and fires and the rat
Have made them extinct.
Some Maoris ate them.
On The Phyllocladus
There are three species in New Zealand.
The singular structure of their foliaceous appendages
gives them special interest in the eyes of the botanist.
True leaves are only produced in the young.
The broad fern-like expansions
which take the place of true leaves
are by some termed ‘cladodia’
and by others ‘phyllodia’,
According to the point of view,
Whether as consisting of abortive branches,
or of a flattened petiole.
As these organs develop flower buds
they cannot be regarded as leaves,
or as modified petioles,
so the term ‘cladodia’ is most closely applicable.
A Note On The Breeding Habits of the Katipo
On Nov. 4th., 1877,
I put a female katipo
in an empty, clear glass bottle;
she at once began to make
a fine irregular web,
and on the morning of the 8th.,
I found that during the night
she had constructed and suspended
near the neck of the bottle,
a spherical cocoon,
composed of a pale yellow silky web,
through which one could see the purplish eggs;
for the next two months
the spider remained
on or close to the cocoon;
I put several flies and other insects
into the bottle,
all of which she at once killed
and threw down to the bottom
Early in January
she shifted the cocoon close
to one side of the bottle
at the shoulder,
and took up a position for herself
three-quarters of the distance
to the bottom of the bottle.
By this time
she was reduced
to half the original size
and was very inert, and,
on the 7th. February, 1878,
sixty young katipos
issued from the cocoon.
the mother lay dead
at the bottom of the bottle;
it must not be supposed
that the old spider
always dies in this way,
for I had one
which ate the greater part of her family
before doing so.
Explanation Of Plate XXVIII
1. Gymnostomum patulum.
Plant nat. size, and cap. enlarged.2. Gymnostomum knightii.
a, b.Leaves enlarged.
c, d. e.Portion of leaves greatly enlarged.
Cap. enlarged.3. Gymnostomum calcareum var. intermedium.
a, b.Leaves enlarged.
c, d.Portion of leaves greatly enlarged.
Cap. enlarged.4. Gymnostomun sulcatum.
a, b.Leaves enlarged.
c.Portion of leaf greatly enlarged.
Plant enlarged.5. Gymnostomum areolatum.
a.Operculum and calyptra enlarged.
b, c, d.Leaves enlarged.
e.Portion of leaf greatly enlarged.
Plant enlarged.6. Gymnostomum angustatum.
b.Portion of leaf greatly enlarged.
a, b.Leaves enlarged.
c.Portion of leaf greatly enlarged.
Description Of Plate
Fig.1.Ehrharta thomsonii, Petrie. Nat. size.
3.Upper pair of empty glumes.
5,5` Nervation of lower pair of empty glumes.
On Forest Culture
Mr. Gillies does not agree with Mr. Firth,
That for the immediate future we should confine ourselves to the planting
of Eucalypti and Coniferae.
There are many objections against the planting of Eucalypti.
It would be scarcely necessary to do so in the north with the object of
As the country is so narrow that it derives abundant moisture from the
This is one of the questions which it would be better for us to consider in
a commercial aspect.
It is one of those things which could be better undertaken by people who
Than by the Government, who does not.
Tables have been furnished to show that the country has been denuded of
its forests, to a great extent,
And it has been stated that thousands of acres have been destroyed by
bushmen lighting their pipes,
And that sawmill proprietors waste tremendous quantities of timber.
But if we look into the absolute facts we will come to a different
We will find it is simply the natural requirements of the people
And the necessities of trade that must be met.
At first, bushmen selected the best trees,
But now the timber trade has increased to such dimensions
That the saw-mill proprietors cut down all the trees that are suitable,
And utilise even the branches,
By splitting them into shingles.
In my opinion,
The idea of conserving our native forests to the extent proposed by
Is quite Utopian.
Mr. Buller To the Rev. Mr. Taylor, Sir:
- There are 160, not 136.
- The Koekoea does not 'bury itself in mud at the bottoms of
- The Notornis is more than twice the size of the Weka.
- There is no such bird as Hieracidea Novae Zelandieae Gouldii.
- There is no such owl as Athene albifons.
- Of the Huia: the tail contains twelve feathers, not four; the
bill is ivory white, not yellow. It does not move like a kanga
- The Tui breeds only once a year; its nidification is in the
- The Matata has a graduated, acuminate tail.
- The errors under the head of “Troglodytinae" are obviously
- The Tieke has a vermilion caruncle on each side pendant
from the angle or corner of the mouth.
- Aplonis Zelandicus. The author mistakes the bird.
- The suggestion that the Kaka-korako belongs to Tricho-
glossus is unfortunate.
- The Kea is described as a bird of red plumage.
- I have never seen a bird with a 'perfectly bald skull of a red
- Himantopus Novae Zelandiae has a black bill, not a red
- The Totoara is Petroica albifrons.
I am actuated solely by a desire to serve the cause of truth, which is the foundation of all human science.
13,line 19from the top, for and and read and.
22,line 14from the bottom, for similiarty read similarity.
25,line 1for Marqunesan read Marquesan.
34,for reference to note against canoes, see page 33 at the foot.
38,line 8from the bottom, for sefula read safulu.
70,line 5from the top, for their read the.[low as high water
106,line 2from the bottom, for as high as low water, read as ^
107,line 15from the bottom, dele. and insert ?
118,line 2from the bottom, for pnt read put.
140,line 11from the top, for Kauroo read Kauru.
176,line 7from the top, for me ta read met a.
184,line 9from the bottom, for Eperia read Epeira.
186,line 9from the top, for peats read bents.
189,line 23from the top, for other read outer.
193,line 20from the bottom, for these read there.
195,line 11from the bottom, for reference read preference.
196,line 2from the top, for oblosignata read albosignata.
198,line 3 and 10 from the bottom, and 199, line 2 from the top,
204, art. 25, for aufor albosiquata read albosignata.
204, art. 25, for auctirostris read acutirostris.
209, for D11/12 read D12/11.
213,line 6from the bottom, for larger read longer.
227,line 14from the bottom, for as read us.
235,line 23from the bottom, for referenct o read reference to.
254,line 18from the bottom, for natualists read naturalists.
262,et seq. Art.XXXII, for Captain Brown read Captain Broun.
269,line 12from the bottom, for P.reticulatis read P.reticularis.
271,No.28, for Tetroreo read Tetrorea.
332,line 21from the bottom, for fortunately read forthwith.
333,line 17from the top, after retarded insert.dele,after chloride.
336,line 18from the bottom, for which read while.
340,line 12from the bottom, for both read water.
342,line 21from the top, dele not.prusside.
346,line 19from the bottom, for nitro-prussic read nitro-^
350,line 11from the bottom, for Mahutangi read Mahurangi.
386,line 17from the top, for radiatian read radiation.
439,line 7from the bottom, for know read known.
These are the things we respect —
the Apteryx, the Sphenodon,
a feather nearly fur,
a snail a frog
a lizard that gives birth to young
and wetas with huge heads;
things death has passed.
We love them for that,
but now they die
and it seems a sign,
so we devise protection
least the loss of one
lead to the loss of each other.
We make oceans all around,
and great depths of sky.
We make songs
Still they die,
however we kill those
that kill them,
in our love,
as if we are the vehicle for time.
© Leicester Kyle Literary Estate, 2012